Whatever the problem, the conflict between Alex and Dulce remained. In many cases, spirals of upward conflict are supported by standards of reciprocity: when one group or person criticizes the other, the person or group criticized feels entitled to do the same. In conflict situations, adversaries often follow the rule of gross reciprocity, i.e. they give too much (over-agreement) or too little (under-agreement). On low levels of conflict, opponents override their threats, while they are subjected to their threats at high levels of conflict. Overmatching can serve as a strong warning, while undermatching can be used to send conciliatory messages.  An example of conflict is arguing with someone about opposing views. The Second World War is still a long way off, but the seeds of the conflict are already sown on the continent. It has been a decade of conflict transformation and peace-building. As conflicts escalate, the doubts and uncertainties of the group members will be replaced by a firm commitment to their position. People rationalize their decisions once they have made them: they look for information that supports their point of view, refuses information that ignores their opinions and consolidates into their original position (see also confirmation bias).  In addition, people think that once they publicly commit to a position, they should stick to it. Sometimes they can recognize the imperfections of their opinions, but they defend those opinions and argue against their opponents just to have the face.
 If opponents argue too loudly, there may be a reaction and the group members are even more attached to the position.   Conflicts are a societal process that intensifies when certain members of a group take sides in the debate. Among the methods of conflict resolution is the resolution of the dispute by a member of the group who is not currently involved in the dispute. Specifically, a mediator is defined as a person who tries to resolve a conflict between two members of the group by intervening in that conflict. To simplify, one can find the Ombudsman, because a disinterested leader leads the parties in developing a solution to a disagreement (Forsyth, 2010). Referring to a 1990 revision of Robert A. Baron`s definitions of organizational conflicts, Afzalur notes that all definitions of conflict include known competing interests and the process of trying to stop the opposing vision or views. On this basis, Afzalur`s proposed definition of conflict is „an interactive process that manifests itself in incompatibility, disagreement or dissonance within or between social entities.“ Afzalur also points out that a conflict can be limited to a person in conflict in himself (intrapersonal conflict). Afzalur lists certain manifestations of conflicting behaviour, starting with disagreements, followed by verbal invective and interference.  When ideas conflict, there are differences of opinion. If you want to go to an action movie, but your friend wants to go to a romantic comedy, that`s a disagreement. Statements, opinions and assertions may also be contradicted.
When I say that my grandmother was a cute woman, and you say she was a horrible person, that`s a disagreement. If the IRS finds a disagreement between your taxes and your actual income, you may get into trouble. In practice, conflict resolution is often linked to day-to-day activities such as organizations, workplaces and institutions. For example, youth aid staff and residents are confused with interpersonal conflicts (meals, courses, breaks, meetings or other mundane but concerted projects).  Your teleconference is at odds with my old one: please reprogram.