International investment agreements (AI) are divided into two types: (1) bilateral investment agreements and (2) investment contracts. A bilateral investment agreement (ILO) is an agreement between two countries to promote and protect investments made by investors from the countries concerned in the territory of the other country. The vast majority of IDu are bits. The category of contracts with investment rules (TIPs) includes different types of investment contracts that are not BITs. There are three main types of TIPs: 1) global economic contracts that contain commitments that are often included in ILOs (. B, for example, a free trade agreement with an investment chapter); 2. contracts with limited investment provisions (for example. B, investment creation or free transfer of investment-related funds; and 3) contracts that contain only „framework clauses,“ such as. B on investment cooperation and/or a mandate for future investment negotiations. In addition to IDAMIT, there is also an open category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It includes various binding and non-binding instruments, such as model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations and others. Kazakhstan is the main beneficiary of the EU`s Erasmus programme, which has spent EUR 115 million on higher education cooperation with Central Asia for the period 2014-2020.
 By the end of 2020, some 3,400 Kazakh students and collaborators are reported to have come to study or teach in Europe, while Kazakh institutions will have welcomed more than 1,500 Europeans.  IIA Navigator This IIAs database – the IIA Navigator – is managed by the IIA section of UNCTAD. You can browse THE IIAs that are completed by a given country or group of countries, view the recently concluded IIAs, or use advanced research for sophisticated research tailored to your needs. Please note: UNCTAD, International Investment Agreements Navigator, available from investmentpolicy.unctad.org/international-investment-agreements/ The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (CPA) with Kazakhstan is the legal framework for bilateral relations between the EU and Kazakhstan since it came into force in 1999. In November 2006, a Memorandum of Understanding on energy cooperation between the EU and Kazakhstan was signed, laying the groundwork for enhanced cooperation. Kazakhstan recognizes the strengthening of economic and political integration as the key to its modernization and development.  The EPCA came into effect on March 1, 2020. The agreement governs trade and economic relations between the EU and Kazakhstan.  Bilateral relations between the EU and Kazakhstan are based on the 1994 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (CPA).  Strengthening the partnership and cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union and its member states was ratified by the Kazakh Parliament in March 2016.
 The European Parliament ratified the agreement on 12 December 2017.  511 of the 654 MEPs present in the European Parliament voted in favour of ratification.  18 EU member states have ratified the Partnership and Extended Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) with Kazakhstan.  Kazakhstan is the first Central Asian country to conclude the EPCA with the EU.  The Partnership and Expanded Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) governs trade and economic relations between the EU and Kazakhstan. The agreement was signed in 2015 and entered into force provisionally on May 1, 2016. After ratification by all Member States, the agreement entered into force on 1 March 2020. IiA Mapping Project The IIA Mapping Project is a cooperative initiative between UNCTAD and universities around the world to represent the content of II A.